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Senescent cell accumulation is an important cause of degenerative aging. Senescent cells cease replication and begin to secrete an inflammatory mix of signals that disrupt tissue structure and function. These cells are created constantly, largely as a result of somatic cells hitting the Hayflick limit on cellular replication, but also as a result of injury, molecular damage, inflammation, and the like.

Near all senescent cells are rapidly destroyed, either via programmed cell death mechanisms, or via the immune system. This clearance falters with age, however, slowing down, becoming less efficient, and allowing senescent cells to accumulate, disrupt tissue function, and provoke chronic inflammation.

MYSM1 Overexpression Extends Life in Mice via a Reduced Senescent

Image credit: Max Pixel, CC0 Public Domain

The targeted destruction of senescent cells has been shown – in animal models – to reverse the progression of many age-related conditions and extend healthy life span. It is easy to demonstrate such results, and many research groups have used many different methods to destroy senescent cells. To the extent that these errant cells are removed, benefits follow. As these demonstrations have accumulated over the years, researchers have broadened their investigations of the biochemistry of senescent cells.

One class of outcome of this work is represented by today’s open access paper. Researchers have identified a gene that affects the burden of cellular senescence, and find that adjusting expression levels down or up also adjusts lifespan as well, due to there being greater or lesser numbers of senescent cells present in older individuals.

This is a good secondary demonstration of the importance of senescent cells to aging and longevity, but not really a good basis for building interventions. Senolytic therapies that destroy senescent cells are just too good a class of treatment to see much competition from this front.

In the case of senolytics: large beneficial effects are achieved very quickly; treatment is only needed intermittently, such as once every few months at most; the first generation drugs cost very little. That compares very favorably with a senescence suppression treatment that would have to be taken continuously across a lifetime, with only small benefits in the short term, particularly given that senescent cells are actually beneficial for wound healing and cancer suppression when present in small numbers, and briefly.

MYSM1 Suppresses Cellular Senescence and the Aging Process to Prolong Lifespan

Aging is characterized by a functional decline across multiple organ systems and is a risk factor for many human diseases. Substantial evidence has demonstrated that senescence is a key hallmark of the aging process and plays a critical roles in controlling aging and aging-associated diseases. Senescence is a cellular response that acts to restrict the proliferation of aged and damaged cells, and is also a state of growth arrest and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to stresses. One hallmark of cellular senescence is the secretion of excessive proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, and proteases termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescence constitutes a stress response triggered by insults associated with aging including genomic instability and telomere attrition.

DNA damage is a causal factor in the aging process that drives cells into senescence or apoptosis as results of the DNA damage response (DDR) controlled by DNA repair processes. DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is known to decline age, leading to the accumulation of genomic rearrangements. Mutations in DNA DSB repair genes reduce lifespan, indicating that DNA repair pathways play a critical roles in the aging process.

The Myb-like, SWIRM, and MPN domains-containing protein 1 (MYSM1) is a histone 2A (H2A) deubiquitinase that specifically deubiquitinates H2A. It is a key functional regulator of hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, and blood cells, and serves as an important regulator of tissue differentiation. MYSM1 is also linked to heritable bone marrow failure syndromes, plays a role in regulating skin development in mice, and impedes antiviral signaling. Loss of Mysm1 has been shown to promote activation of the p53 stress response and induced abnormal cell development and tissue differentiation. More recently, a study revealed that Mysm1 levels increase in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage and that mice lacking Mysm1 show a shorter lifespan. These important roles of MYSM1 implicate that it may be involved in the regulation of cellular senescence and the aging process.

The present study showed that MYSM1 is a key suppressor of senescence and aging. Functionally, MYSM1 functionally represses DDR-associated SASP and the aging process. Mechanistically, MYSM1 represses the aging process by promoting homologous recombination (HR) mediated DNA repair. Mysm1 deficiency promotes aging and aging-related pathologies and reduces lifespan in mice. AAV9-Mysm1 was shown to attenuate the aging process to prolong the lifespan of mice. Our data suggest that Mysm1 is a potential agent for the prevention of aging and aging-related diseases.

Source: Fight Aging!




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Diamonds may help measuring thermal conductivity in living cells

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Scientists have very precise instruments, but measuring properties of tiny little cells is still very difficult. Now researchers at the University of Queensland have developed a new tool to measure heat transfer inside living cells. It includes actual diamonds and it can work as both a heater and a thermometre. Someday it can improve cancer diagnosis.

Diamonds may help measuring thermal conductivity in living cells

Diamonds are essentially very hard pieces of carbon, which makes them great for some scientific applications. Image credit: En-cas-de-soleil via (Wikimedia(CC BY-SA 4.0)

Cancer cells are different – they behave differently and exhibit different properties. Scientists have long speculated that in some cases precisely targeted thermal therapies could be very effective against cancer. However, in order for this to become reality scientists needed to know thermal conductivity of living cells. With current technology it is literally impossible to measure thermal conductivity – the rate that heat can flow through an object if one side is hot and another is cold – inside of such tiny living things as cells.

Scientists from Australia, Japan and Singapore now employed nanodiamonds (just tiny little diamonds) to act as minute sensors in a new system. Diamonds are great, because they are very hard and because they are just a different form of carbon, which is very well-known to us. Scientists coated their nanodiamonds with a special heat-releasing polymer. This resulted in a sensor, which can act as a heater or a thermometre, depending on what kind of laser light is applied. This sensor allows measuring thermal conductivity in living cells with a resolution of 200 nanometres.

Associate Professor Taras Plakhotnik, lead author of the study, said that this new method already revealed some new interesting information about cells. He said: “We found that the rate of heat diffusion in cells, as measured in our experiments, was several times slower than in pure water, for example.”

If cancer cells and healthy cells exhibit different thermal conductivity, this kind of measurement could become a very precise diagnostic technique. Also, because these particles are not toxic and can be used in living cells, scientists think they could open the door for  improving heat-based treatments for cancer. Measuring head conductivity could help monitor biochemical reactions in real time in the cell. But that’s not all. Scientists think that this method could lead to a better understanding of metabolic disorders, such as obesity.

Diamonds are commonly used in science and industry. People oftentimes see them as something from the jewelry world, but they are much more common elsewhere. And they are not even that expensive. Hopefully, this study will result in a new method to research living cells and maybe some novel therapies as well.

 

Source: University of Queensland




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Redmi Note 10 Launch Teased Officially After Rumours Tipping February Debut in India

Redmi Note 10 launch has been officially teased on Weibo. The new development comes just weeks after the rumour mill suggested the existence of the Redmi Note 10 series that could include the Redmi Note 10, the Redmi Note 10 Pro, and the Redmi Note 10 Pro 5G. The new series is expected to succeed the Redmi Note 9 family that debuted with the launch of the Redmi Note 9 Pro and the Redmi Note 9 Pro Max in India in March last year.

Redmi General Manager Lu Weibing has teased the launch of the Redmi Note 10 on Weibo. Instead of giving away details of the phone directly, Weibing has posted an image of the Redmi Note 9 4G asking users about their expectations with the Redmi Note 10.

The Redmi Note 10 is speculated to launch in India alongside the Redmi Note 10 Pro in February. Both phones will be priced aggressively, according to tipster Ishan Agarwal. The Redmi Note 10 in the series is tipped to come in Gray, Green, and White colour options.

Although Xiaomi hasn’t provided any specifics about the phone yet, the Redmi Note 10 Pro 5G purportedly received a certification from the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) earlier this month. The phone is also said to have surfaced on the US

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) website with the model number M2101K6G. It has also reportedly appeared on the websites of other regulatory bodies including the European Economic Commission (EEC), Singapore’s IMDA, and Malaysia’s MCMC.

Redmi Note 10 series specifications (expected)

The Redmi Note 10 Pro is rumoured to come with a 120Hz display and include the Qualcomm Snapdragon 732G SoC. However, the 5G variant of the Redmi Note 10 Pro is said to come with the Snapdragon 750G SoC. It is speculated to have 6GB and 8GB RAM options as well as 64GB and 128GB storage versions. The Redmi Note 10 Pro models will come with a 64-megapixel primary camera sensor and include a 5,050mAh battery, according to a recent report.

Similar to the Redmi Note 10 Pro models, the Redmi Note 10 is also rumoured to have both 4G and 5G versions. The smartphone is tipped to have a 48-megapixel primary camera sensor and include a 6,000mAh battery.

The Redmi Note 10 Pro and the Redmi Note 10 are both expected to run on Android 11 with MIUI 12 out-of-the-box.


What will be the most exciting tech launch of 2021? We discussed this on Orbital, our weekly technology podcast, which you can subscribe to via Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, or RSS, download the episode, or just hit the play button below.

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Cybersecurity: Blaming users is not the answer

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A punitive approach toward employees reporting data breaches intensifies problems.

Image: iStock/iBrave

Experts are warning, when it comes to cybersecurity, blaming users is a terrible idea. Doing so likely results in creating an even worse situation. Many organizations have defaulted to a blame culture when it comes to data security,” comments Tony Pepper, CEO of Egress Software Technologies, in an email exchange. “They believe actions have consequences and someone has to be responsible.”

“In cases where employees report incidents of data loss they accidentally caused, it’s quite common for them to face serious negative consequences,” continues Pepper. “This, obviously, creates a culture of fear, leading to a lack of self-reporting, which in turn, exacerbates the problem. Many organizations are therefore unaware of the scale of their security issues.”

Pepper’s comments are based on findings gleaned by the independent market research firm Arlington Research. Analysts interviewed more than 500 upper-level managers from organizations within the financial services, healthcare, banking, and legal sectors.

What the analysts found was published in the paper, Outbound Email Security Report. Regarding employees responsible for a loss of data, 45% of those surveyed would reprimand the employee(s), 25% would likely fire the employee(s).

SEE: Identity theft protection policy (TechRepublic Premium)

Pepper suggests while organizations may believe this decreases the chance of the offense reoccurring, it can have a different and more damaging effect. There’s a chance employees may not report security incidents, to avoid repercussions from company management. 

“Especially in these uncertain times, employees are going to be even less willing to self-report, or report others, if they believe they might lose their jobs as the result,” adds Pepper. 

It gets worse 

According to survey findings, a high percentage of organizations rely on their employees to be the primary data breach detection mechanism–particularly when it comes to email. “Our research found that 62% of organizations rely on people-based reporting to alert management about data breaches,” mentions Pepper. “By reprimanding employees who were only trying to do their job, organizations are undermining the reporting mechanism and ensuring incidents will go unreported.”

The lack of truly understanding why data is escaping the digital confines of an organization makes it hugely difficult for those in charge of cybersecurity to develop a defensive strategy that will effectively protect an organization’s data.

Overcome the blame game

Once it is understood that reprimanding employees is ineffective, organizations should look to create a more positive security culture. One immediate benefit is the increased visibility of heretofore unknown security risks.  

Another benefit is the ability to show regulatory bodies the organization has taken all reasonable steps to protect sensitive data. Pepper adds, “If you don’t know where your risks are, it’s hard to put reasonable measures in place. Regulators could surmise that during a data breach investigation and levy higher fines and penalties.” 

Technology has a role

Once the blame game is curtailed, it’s time to get technology involved. “The first step is to get reporting right, using technology, not people, which will remove the pressure of self-reporting from employees and place the responsibility firmly in the hands of those in charge of cybersecurity,” suggests Pepper. “Advances in contextual machine learning mean it’s possible for security tools to understand users and learn from their actions, so they can detect and mitigate abnormal behavior–for example, adding an incorrect recipient to an email.”

This is where technology makes all the difference. It prevents accidental data loss before it can happen. It empowers employees to be part of the solution, and technology gives the security team unbiased visibility of risks and emerging threats. 

What cybersecurity teams need to understand

Education about potential consequences is vital. Anyone working with the organization’s digital assets needs to understand the possible outcomes from a data breach–for example, regulatory fines or damage to the organization’s reputation. 

It’s a safe bet when users understand the consequences of emailing client data to the wrong recipient or responding to a phishing email, they’ll be much more likely to report the incident if and when it occurs. Remember: If an incident isn’t reported, there’s no way to remediate it or prevent it from happening again.

Pepper, in conclusion, offers advice to those managing cybersecurity. “The best way to engage employees with security, and ensure they understand its importance, is to create a ‘security-positive’ company culture,” explains Pepper. “Security teams need to reassure the wider organization that, while data breaches are to be taken seriously, employees who report accidental incidents will receive appropriate support from the business and not face severe repercussions.”

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