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(5 August 2020 – Rice University) Using data from NASA’s InSight Lander on Mars, Rice University seismologists have made the first direct measurements of three subsurface boundaries from the crust to the core of the red planet.

An artist’s impression of Mars’ inner structure. The topmost layer is the crust, and beneath it is the mantle, which rests on a solid inner core. (courtesy: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

“Ultimately it may help us understand planetary formation,” said Alan Levander, co-author of a study available online this week in Geophysical Research Letters. While the thickness of Mars’ crust and the depth of its core have been calculated with a number of models, Levander said the InSight data allowed for the first direct measurements, which can be used to check models and ultimately to improve them.

“In the absence of plate tectonics on Mars, its early history is mostly preserved compared with Earth,” said study co-author Sizhuang Deng, a Rice graduate student. “The depth estimates of Martian seismic boundaries can provide indications to better understand its past as well as the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets in general.”

Finding clues about Mars’ interior and the processes that formed it are key goals for InSight, a robotic lander that touched down in November 2018. The probe’s dome-shaped seismometer allows scientists to listen to faint rumblings inside the planet, in much the way that a doctor might listen to a patient’s heartbeat with a stethoscope.

Seismometers measure vibrations from seismic waves. Like circular ripples that mark the spot where a pebble disturbed the surface of a pond, seismic waves flow through planets, marking the location and size of disturbances like meteor strikes or earthquakes, which are aptly called marsquakes on the red planet. InSight’s seismometer recorded more than 170 of these from February to September 2019.

Seismic waves are also subtly altered as they pass through different kinds of rock. Seismologists have studied the patterns in seismographic recordings on Earth for more than a century and can use them to map the location of oil and gas deposits and much deeper strata.

“The traditional way to investigate structures beneath Earth is to analyze earthquake signals using dense networks of seismic stations,” said Deng. “Mars is much less tectonically active, which means it will have far fewer marsquake events compared with Earth. Moreover, with only one seismic station on Mars, we cannot employ methods that rely on seismic networks.”

Levander, Rice’s Carey Croneis Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, and Deng analyzed InSight’s 2019 seismology data using a technique called ambient noise autocorrelation. “It uses continuous noise data recorded by the single seismic station on Mars to extract pronounced reflection signals from seismic boundaries,” Deng said.

The first boundary Deng and Levander measured is the divide between Mars’ crust and mantle almost 22 miles (35 kilometers) beneath the lander.

The second is a transition zone within the mantle where magnesium iron silicates undergo a geochemical change. Above the zone, the elements form a mineral called olivine, and beneath it, heat and pressure compress them into a new mineral called wadsleyite. Known as the olivine-wadsleyite transition, this zone was found 690-727 miles (1,110-1,170 kilometers) beneath InSight.

“The temperature at the olivine-wadsleyite transition is an important key to building thermal models of Mars,” Deng said. “From the depth of the transition, we can easily calculate the pressure, and with that, we can derive the temperature.”

The third boundary he and Levander measured is the border between Mars’ mantle and its iron-rich core, which they found about 945-994 miles (1,520-1,600 kilometers) beneath the lander. Better understanding this boundary “can provide information about the planet’s development from both a chemical and thermal point of view,” Deng said.

The research was supported by Rice’s Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences.

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Space

Mitochondrial changes key to health problems in space

Mitochondrial changes key to health problems in space

(25 November 2020 – NASA Ames) Living in space isn’t easy. There are notable impacts on the biology of living things in the harsh environment of space.

A team of scientists has now identified a possible underlying driver of these impacts: the powerhouse of the cell, called mitochondria, experiences changes in activity during spaceflight.

Recently published in the journal Cell, these results used data collected over decades of experimental research on the International Space Station, including samples from 59 astronauts. Studies such as these are critical to understanding the effects of low gravity, radiation, confined spaces, and more as NASA sends astronauts deep into space for extended missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

Valery Boyko, lead of NASA GeneLab’s Sample Processing Lab, is setting up automated liquid handling instrument to quantify the amount of sequencing material in a sample. (courtesy: NASA/Dominic Hart)

“We’ve found a universal mechanism that explains the kinds of changes we see to the body in space, and in a place we didn’t expect,” said Afshin Beheshti the lead author on the paper and a researcher with KBR, which provides contract support to NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. “Everything gets thrown out of whack and it all starts with the mitochondria.”

The research also made use of a comprehensive database of animal studies collected on the GeneLab platform at Ames, as well as the NASA twin study comparing identical twins Mark and Scott Kelly over the course of a year. The GeneLab platform is the first of its kind to capture large amounts of space biology “omics” data that can be used to characterize and quantify biological molecules – such as DNA, RNA, and proteins – and their systematic effects on the structures and functions of organisms. GeneLab’s Analysis Working Group drew in scientists from all over the world to collaborate on the study and get the most out of the data housed on the open-source platform.

Mitochondria are tiny structures within cells that produce energy for the basic units of biology that make up our bodies. When that energy production breaks down, many of the body’s key organs and its immune system can be put in jeopardy. This new research indicates this breakdown in activity of mitochondria might contribute to health or performance challenges faced by humans in space.

The first clue about the connection between mitochondria and spaceflight came from research using rodents.

“When we started comparing the tissues from mice flown on separate space missions, we noticed that mitochondrial dysfunction kept popping up,” said Beheshti. “Whether we were looking at problems in the eyes or in the liver, the same pathways related to mitochondria were the source of the problem.”

NASA’s data on humans backed this hypothesis up. The changes identified in astronaut Scott Kelly’s immune system during his year in space starting in 2015 may be explained by the changes observed in the activity of his mitochondria as well. Blood and urine samples from dozens of other astronauts showed further evidence that, in various types of cells, being in space led to altered mitochondrial activity.

“This is a big step toward figuring out how our bodies can live healthily off-world,” said Beheshti. “And the good news is, this is a problem we can already start to tackle. We can look at countermeasures and drugs we already use to deal with mitochondrial disorders on Earth to see how they might work in space, to start.”

From issues as wide-ranging as disrupted circadian rhythms to cardiovascular alterations, scientists can now turn to this small but essential structure in cells as a place to continue research and look for solutions. Mitochondria are indeed the powerhouse of the cell, and may also power the future of space biology research – pointing the way toward discoveries that will help astronauts live safely in orbit and beyond.

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Integrasys awarded ESA project for interference cancellation and removal technology

Integrasys awarded ESA project for interference cancellation and removal technology

(25 November 2020 – Integrsys) Integrasys has been awarded a 1.5M€ ESA project for interference cancellation and removal technology.

CDTI, the Spanish Delegation for ESA, has funded a project for developing the first Spanish and European Interference Cancellation Technology for satellite signals without requiring a second antenna or knowing about the interference parameters. This new technology can play a critical role in Government networks, not necessarily only military; CLEANRF Integrasys solution cost is much more affordable than any other solution in the market today, with higher performance and lower physical footprint.

CleanRF interference cancellation and removal (courtesy: Integrasys)

“At Integrasys is a great pleasure to work with ESA and CDTI in CLEANRF project for delivering to ESA the CLEANRF solution and enabling us to have better technology and more affordable prices for our customers. We have proven to be a very reliable partner to more than 60 customers that we currently serve every year, and we look forward to provide more technologies in a reliable, resilient and cost efficient way to our great partners.” said Alvaro Sanchez, Integrays CEO.

“CDTI, as the Spanish Delegation to ESA, regularly opens competitive national calls to allow for the participation of Spanish entities in ESA’s technology programmes, being GSTP (General Support Technology Programme) one of them. The purpose of the national calls is to select among the many projects that are presented, only those of the highest standards in terms of industrial, technological and market criteria. In this frame we are pleased to see the success of Spanish SMEs as Integrasys with its CLEANRF proposal, contributing to the innovation of the outstanding Spanish space industrial landscape” Said Juan Carlos Cortes CDTI

Element 2 of ESA’s General Support Technology Programme (GSTP)

The activity is funded with Element 2 of ESA’s General Support Technology Programme (GSTP).  Through the optional Programme ESA, Participating States and Industry work together to convert promising engineering concepts into a broad spectrum of useable products. By supporting market-oriented activities, driven by industry, Element 2 encourages more ideas and partnerships and ultimately leads to the most innovative technologies for European space industry.

CDTI

CDTI-E.P.E. is a Public Business Entity, dependent on the Ministry of Science and Innovation, which promotes innovation and technological development in Spanish companies. It is the entity that channels requests for help and support for R+D+i projects of Spanish companies at national and international levels. The objective of the CDTI is to contribute to the improvement of the technological level of Spanish companies. CDTI also holds the representation of Spain in the European Space Agency among other international organizations.

Integrasys

Integrasys is a privately owned company specialized on engineering and manufacturing Satellite Spectrum Monitoring Systems in the telecommunication and broadcasting markets. Integrasys was founded in 1990 by a group of Hewlett-Packard engineers experts on Automated RF & Microwaves Test Systems and Software and the marquess of Antella. Since then Integrasys has evolved towards today’s company, offering a wide range of signal monitoring products and VSAT Deployment and Maintenance and Link Budget solutions for different telecom and satellite services with the best customer care that our customers deserve.

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US Government awards Gilat additional multi-million-dollar contract for military communications program

US Government awards Gilat additional multi million dollar contract for military communications

(24 November 2020 – Gilat) Gilat Satellite Networks subsidiary Wavestream has received a multi-million-dollar order from the United States Government for a military communication program contract.

With this award, Wavestream achieves an industry record shipment milestone by surpassing 5,000 units of its high-power 50W Ka-band military Block Upconverter (BUC) to be delivered to this military program.

(courtesy: Gilat)

“Wavestream is honored to be the vendor of choice for the US government military communication program and to be reliably supplying its high-power 50W Ka-band BUC for over 14 years. This product is the most widely deployed solid state amplifier built at this power level,” said Bob Huffman, Wavestream’s General Manager. “With this order we have surpassed shipment of 5,000 units, a testament to Wavestream’s unmatched production capacity and product longevity of military-grade high-power Ka-Band SSPA/BUCs.”

About Wavestream

Wavestream, a Gilat subsidiary is the industry leader in the design and manufacture of next generation satellite communications high power transceivers for In Flight Connectivity, Ground Mobility and Gateway markets. Since 2001, we provide system integrators with field-proven, high performance Ka, Ku and X band Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPAs), Block Upconverters (BUCs), Block Down Converters and Transceivers. We design, manufacture and repair our products in-house and have delivered over 40,000 systems in the past 15 years. Wavestream products provide high quality and reliability under the harshest environmental conditions and we are currently certified to ISO 9001:2008 and AS9100D standards.

About Gilat

Gilat Satellite Networks Ltd. (NASDAQ: GILT, TASE: GILT) is a leading global provider of satellite-based broadband communications. With 30 years of experience, we design and manufacture cutting-edge ground segment equipment, and provide comprehensive solutions and end-to-end services, powered by our innovative technology. Delivering high value competitive solutions, our portfolio comprises of a cloud based VSAT network platform, high-speed modems, high performance on-the-move antennas and high efficiency, high power Solid State Amplifiers (SSPA) and Block Upconverters (BUC).

Gilat’s comprehensive solutions support multiple applications with a full portfolio of products to address key applications including broadband access, cellular backhaul, enterprise, in-flight connectivity, maritime, trains, defense and public safety, all while meeting the most stringent service level requirements. Gilat controlling shareholders are the FIMI Private Equity Funds.

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