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Find out if Jack Wallen likes the Zergo Freedom ergonomic keyboard even more than the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard.

Figure A: The two halves of the Zergo Freedom keyboard.

Image: Jack Wallen/TechRepublic

Some ergonomic keyboards are full of gimmicks that do little to serve the purpose of protecting your wrists and digits from repetitive stress injuries, while others come seriously close to perfection. For me, the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard (UHK) is the perfect combination of form over function, and it would take a miracle of a keyboard to pull that UHK out of my hands. And although the Zergo Freedom keyboard didn’t quite achieve that seemingly unattainable goal, it did come pretty close.

The perfect keyboard is very subjective, and muscle memory tends to work against manufacturers and designers. When I first adopted the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard, it took a hot minute for my fingers and brain to get in sync with one another; but once that happened, it was pure magic. Typing was incredibly comfortable and efficient. And given how much I type on a daily basis, the patterns of strokes and distance of keys became deeply ingrained in my muscle memory. Because of that, migrating to another keyboard is a huge challenge.

SEE: Stand up and stretch: Improving the ergonomics of your office boosts productivity and reduces injury (TechRepublic Premium)

The Zergo Freedom came dangerously close to usurping the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard, and that is a testament to how well this keyboard is designed. And for any developer, writer, or admin who suffers from the threat of wrist pain due to the frequent pounding of keys and who hasn’t found that perfect keyboard, the Zergo Freedom might be the perfect piece of hardware.

What is the Zergo Freedom keyboard?

The Zergo Freedom is a split-design keyboard with plenty of cable to separate the two halves as far apart as your wrists need (Figure A). Many ergonomic keyboards offer such a feature.

The Zergo Freedom also includes eight legs (one on each corner of each half), so you can tilt each side of the keyboard to perfectly fit the needs of your hands and arms (Figure B). This is one of the unique features to the Zergo Freedom, as most ergonomic keyboards only include tenting legs on the inside corners, which limits the angles you can create for your keyboard.

Figure B

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The “tenting” legs of the Zergo Freedom make it easy for you to angle the halves independently. 

Image: Jack Wallen/TechRepublic

The fun doesn’t end there.

The Zergo Freedom examined the wrist pad situation and came up with a unique feature: You can either opt to go with wrist rest pads that encompass the entire lower portion of the keyboard, or you can use the smaller pads that skate about as you move your hands (Video A). This is a great option for those who feel traditional rests prevent their hands from moving freely about the keyboard.

Video A

Programming macros and keys

This is another area where the Zergo Freedom outshines most of its competition. Unlike most keyboards of this nature, the Zergo Freedom doesn’t require software for the programming of keys and macros. With the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard, you must install the UHK Agent in order to program or configure the keyboard, and sometimes the Agent is seriously flaky or won’t even run.

With the Zergo Freedom, everything is on board. For example, to switch between Windows and macOS layouts, press and hold the Left Num Shift + Left FN Shift + Del, combination for five seconds. To copy a macro, press and hold the Left Num Shift + Left FN Shift + F2, for two seconds. To toggle the Right Alt key double tap option, press and hold the Left Num Shift + Left FN Shift + F8 combination for two seconds. 

For more programming options, check out this manual page. This is a welcome change, as so many keyboard programming tools are poorly designed and executed. The Zergo Freedom nails this to perfection. 

The caveat

When the muscle memory in your fingers has already settled on a keyboard layout, it can be a challenge to get them to acclimate to something new–this is especially true when the said layout is a serious departure from the norm. This was the case with the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard, as the cursor keys and delete key were replaced by a key combination using a Mod key. After a week or so, I grew accustomed to how the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard functioned, and it became quite efficient. Now after months of usage all other keyboards are too inefficient for my needs.

SEE: IT hardware procurement policy (TechRepublic Premium)

The same holds true with the Zergo Freedom. The key that confounded me the most it was the Enter key. Instead of this key being in its usual spot, it was on the left half, opposite the space bar. And the Backspace key is above the spacebar. These shifts in major keys caused serious confusion with my fingers. Granted, like with the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard, given enough time, my fingers would get accustomed to the new layout. And with the Swap Macro, it’s possible to swap any two keys on the keyboard, so with a bit of work, you could lay the keys out to better suit the way you work.

My conclusion

No keyboard is created equal, and to conclude one keyboard superior over another would be a bit shortsighted. Although the Ultimate Hacking Keyboard is the perfect hardware for me, it might not be for you.

Ultimately, a keyboard boils down to key placement and travel. With the Zergo Freedom’s ability to swap keys, seriously impressive key travel, and an amazing build quality, if you’re willing to drop the $339 for a customizable keyboard, the Zergo Freedom might well become the savior of your wrists and your fingers.

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Redmi 9 Prime, Redmi Note 9 to Go on Sale in India Today via Amazon, Mi.com: Price, Specifications

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Redmi 9 Prime and Redmi Note 9 will go on sale today, September 25, starting 12pm (noon) via Amazon and Mi.com. Redmi 9 Prime was launched early last month, while Redmi Note 9 was launched in July. Both Xiaomi phones feature quad rear camera setups and impressive specifications. Redmi 9 Prime is available in two storage configurations, whereas the Redmi Note 9 comes in three storage variants. Both the phones pack a large 5,020mAh battery.

Redmi 9 Prime, Redmi Note 9 price in India, availability

The Redmi 9 Prime will go on sale starting 12pm (noon) today, via Amazon and Mi.com. The 4GB RAM + 64GB storage variant of Redmi 9 Prime is priced at Rs. 9,999, while the 4GB RAM + 128GB storage variant costs Rs. 11,999. It is offered in Matte Black, Mint Green, Space Blue, and Sunrise Flare colour options.

The Redmi Note 9 pricing starts at Rs. 11,999 for the 4GB + 64GB storage option. The 4GB + 128GB storage variant is priced at Rs. 13,499, while the 6GB + 128GB storage configuration is priced at Rs. 14,999. The Redmi Note 9 is available in Aqua Green, Aqua White, Pebble Grey, and Scarlet Red colour options. It will go on sale at the same time as Redmi 9 Prime through Amazon and Mi.com.

Redmi 9 Prime specifications

Redmi 9 Prime features a 6.53-inch full-HD+ (1,080×2,340 pixels) IPS display with 19.5:9 aspect ratio. The dual-SIM (Nano) phone runs on MIUI 11, based on Android 10 with MIUI 11 on top. It is powered by the octa-core MediaTek Helio G80 SoC, paired with 4GB of RAM. It offers up to 128GB of onboard storage that is expandable via microSD card (up to 512GB). Redmi 9 Prime packs a 5,020mAh battery that supports 18W fast charging.

In terms of optics, Redmi 9 Prime has a quad rear camera setup that includes a 13-megapixel primary shooter, an 8-megapixel secondary shooter with an ultra-wide-angle lens, a 5-megapixel macro shooter, and a 2-megapixel depth sensor. For selfies, the phone features an 8-megapixel camera sensor at the front.

Redmi Note 9 specifications

Redmi Note 9 features a 6.53-inch full-HD+ (1,080×2,340 pixels) Dot Display with 19.5:9 aspect ratio. The dual-SIM (Nano) phone runs on MIUI 11, based on Android 10. Under the hood, the Redmi Note 9 is powered by an octa-core MediaTek Helio G85 SoC, along with up to 6GB of RAM. It offers up to 128GB of inbuilt storage, expandable via microSD card (up to 512GB) through a dedicated slot.

Speaking of cameras, the Redmi Note 9 has a quad rear camera setup that features a 48-megapixel primary sensor, an 8-megapixel secondary sensor, a 2-megapixel macro shooter, and a 2-megapixel depth sensor. For selfies and video calls, the phone features a 13-megapixel camera at the front.

The Redmi Note 9 also packs a 5,020mAh battery that supports 22.5W fast charging along with 9W reverse charging.


Is Redmi Note 9 the perfect successor to Redmi Note 8? We discussed this on Orbital, our weekly technology podcast, which you can subscribe to via Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, or RSS, download the episode, or just hit the play button below.

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Amazon Echo: Cheat sheet – TechRepublic

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Amazon’s smart speaker dominance may be facing a challenge from Google, but the Echo line is still on top. Find out all you need to know about Amazon Echo IoT devices.

Amazon’s Echo smart speaker was a game changer when it launched in 2015. Since then it has continued to lead the Internet of Things (IoT) hub market in spite of increased competition from Google. The entire family of Amazon Echo products can be found in homes, offices, businesses, and several internet-connected mobile devices that allow Alexa, its onboard digital assistant, to reach the web.

The Amazon Echo is designed for the smart home, but there’s no reason it can’t be used in a smart office as well. If you’ve been seeking a hub for an IoT-connected office, it’s well worth your time to investigate one of the many Amazon Echo products available to see if one is a good fit, and TechRepublic has all the information you need right here. This Amazon Echo cheat sheet will be updated periodically as new software is released and new hardware is developed.

This article is also available as a download, Cheat sheet: Amazon Echo (free PDF).

SEE: Internet of Things policy (TechRepublic Premium)

Executive summary

  • What is Amazon Echo? Amazon Echo is a line of internet-connected smart speakers and mobile accessories that come with Alexa, Amazon’s digital assistant. It is able to serve as an IoT hub, a music player, an internet search engine, and anything else that an Alexa Skill enables it to do.

  • Why does Amazon Echo matter? Amazon Echo is, so far, the leading smart speaker on the market. Google Home is a close second, but Amazon’s two-year head start has made Echo and Alexa the platform to beat. Anyone interested in smart home technology will likely be making a choice between one of those platforms.

  • Who does Amazon Echo affect? Amazon Echo affects anyone who wishes to turn their home or business into a smart IoT-connected one. Amazon Echo can serve as a hub for a variety of IoT devices; newer Echo units with screens also make simple video calling a reality for businesses and consumers, and mobile Echo hardware makes staying connected to Alexa possible no matter where you are.

  • How has the Amazon Echo line changed since its launch? The Amazon Echo was released to the public in June 2015, with the Dot and Tap being released in September and March 2016, respectively. Amazon revamped the Echo line with a new version of the Echo in September 2017, along with these new products: The smart home-centered Echo Plus, the now discontinued Echo Spot, and the Echo Connect, which allows you to connect Alexa to a telephone landline. In September 2018, Amazon made major changes to the Echo line again, releasing multiple new products with new functions and form factors. In September 2019, Amazon released several new Echo devices as well as Alexa-powered smartglasses, a smart ring, and earbuds.

  • How do I start using Amazon Echo? All of the various Echo products are available on Amazon.com and at major electronics retailers. Using an Amazon Echo is as simple as installing the smartphone app and following the onscreen instructions.

SEE: All of TechRepublic’s cheat sheets and smart person’s guides

The new Echo devices Amazon announced at its September 2019 event.

Image: James Martin/CNET

What is Amazon Echo?

It’s hard to be on the internet nowadays and not have heard of the Amazon Echo. Amazon’s smart speaker and IoT hub has sold over five million units since its launch in 2015, making it the easy leader in the smart speaker market.

The Echo, Echo Plus, Echo Dot, Echo Studio, Echo Glow, Echo Flex, and Echo Show 8 are all internet-connected speakers that come with Amazon’s Alexa digital assistant. (The Echo Glow does not have a built-in microphone and requires an additional Echo unit to operate.)

Along with these home-based devices are three mobile Amazon Echo products that allow users to connect to Alexa while out of the house: The AirPod-competitor Echo Buds, Echo Frames smartglasses (they don’t have display features and are essentially just glasses with Alexa built in), and the Echo Loop ring

Amazon has also announced the Alexa Smart Oven, a combination microwave, convection cooker, and an air fryer. The oven doesn’t have a smart speaker and requires an Echo device to operate its smart features.

Alexa can control IoT devices, purchase goods from Amazon, play music, and perform a variety of app-like tasks called Skills, which can be installed from inside the Alexa app or Amazon’s Alexa Skills page.

Newer Echo products can even turn a regular “dumb” speaker into an Alexa-powered device, bring Alexa to your car, or let you voice-control a microwave.

All of the various Echo devices can be woken with a voice command, which is set to “Alexa” by default. The devices feature limited control buttons for volume, mute, and wake, but the products truly shine when their far-field microphones and speech recognition are used to make requests from the next room.

Additional resources

Tech specs for Amazon Echo devices

Specs: Amazon Echo (new Sept. 2019 model)

  • Size: 5.8″ x 3.9″ x 3.9″

  • Screen size: n/a

  • Sound: 3″ woofer and 0.8″ tweeter

  • Camera: n/a

  • Wi-Fi: Dual-band Wi-Fi supports 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac (2.4 and 5 GHz) networks.

  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.

  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet

  • Battery life: n/a

  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Amazon Echo Plus

  • Size: 9.3″ x 3.3″ x 3.3″

  • Screen size: n/a

  • Sound: 2.5″ woofer and 0.8″ tweeter

  • Camera: n/a

  • Wi-Fi: Dual-band Wi-Fi supports 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac (2.4 and 5 GHz) networks.

  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.

  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet

  • Battery life: n/a

  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Amazon Echo Dot (new Sept. 2019 model)

  • Size: 3.9″ x 3.9″ x 1.7″ 

  • Screen size: LED screen can display time, temperature, and timers

  • Sound: Single 0.6″ speaker, 3.5 mm stereo jack for connection to external speaker.

  • Camera: n/a

  • Wi-Fi: 802.11a/b/g/n/ac support, no ad-hoc/p2p network support

  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.

  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet

  • Battery life: n/a

  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Amazon Echo Studio

  • Size: 8.1″ height x 6.9″ diameter

  • Screen: n/a

  • Sound: Three 2″ (51 mm) midrange speakers, one 1″ (25 mm) tweeter, one 5.25″ (133 mm) woofer with bass aperture

  • Camera: n/a

  • Wi-Fi: 802.11a/b/g/n/ac support, no ad-hoc/p2p network support

  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.

  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet

  • Battery life: n/a

  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Amazon Echo Show 8

  • Size: 7.9″x 5.4″x 3.9″

  • Screen size: 8″

  • Sound: dual 2″ speakers

  • Camera: Front-facing 1MP camera for video calls

  • Wi-Fi: Dual-band Wi-Fi supports 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac (2.4 and 5 GHz) networks.

  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.

  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet

  • Battery life: n/a

  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Echo Flex

  • Size: 2.8″ x 2.6″ x 2.0″

  • Screen size: n/a, does have LED indicator and built-in night light

  • Sound: 0.6″ mini speaker, stereo jack

  • Camera: n/a

  • Wi-Fi: Dual-band Wi-Fi supports 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac (2.4 and 5 GHz) networks.

  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.

  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet, plugs directly into outlet without cord, has one USB-A port

  • Battery life: n/a

  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Echo Buds

  • Size: Earbud: 22 x 23 x 24 mm, charging case: 57 x 77 x 29 mm

  • Sound: Knowles dual-balanced armature drivers, Bose active noise reduction

  • Wi-Fi: Uses Wi-Fi or data connection along with the Alexa app to enable some features

  • Bluetooth: Supports Bluetooth 5.0

  • Power: Charges via charging case. Charging case charges with micro-USB

  • Battery life: five hour battery life, 20 with charging case. 

  • Sensors: Accelerometer, proximity, touch

  • Compatibility: Works with Android 6.0 and newer, iOS 12 and newer. 

Specs: Echo Frames

  • Size: Echo Frames: 54-18-145 mm, carrying case: 161.5 x 62.5 x 44.75 mm

  • Screen size: n/a, frames do not feature any heads-up display

  • Sound: 4 micro speakers (2 in each arm)

  • Camera: n/a

  • Wi-Fi: Uses Wi-Fi or data connection along with the Alexa app to enable some features.

  • Bluetooth: Supports Bluetooth 5.0

  • Power: Frames charge via micro-USB. 

  • Battery life: All day battery life with “intermittent usage,” three hours of continuous audio playback.

  • Sensors: capacitive touch, ambient light, accelerometer

  • Compatibility: Supports Android 8.0 and newer, iOS not supported

Specs: Echo Loop

  • Size: 2.58 mm thick x 11.35–15.72 mm wide. Ring available in S, M, L, and XL sizes.

  • Sound: armature speaker

  • Wi-Fi: n/a, pairs with smartphone and uses its data/Wi-Fi connection

  • Bluetooth: Supports Bluetooth 5.0

  • Power: Charges via charging case. Charging case charges with micro-USB

  • Battery life: Full day of “intermittent use.”

  • Compatibility: Works with Android 8.0 and newer, iOS 12 and newer.

Specs: Amazon Echo Spot

  • Size: 4.1″ x 3.8″ x 3.6″
  • Screen size: 2.5″
  • Sound: 2.5″ speaker
  • Camera: Front-facing for video calls
  • Wi-Fi: Dual-band Wi-Fi supports 802.11 a/b/g/n (2.4 and 5 GHz) networks.
  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.
  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet
  • Battery life: n/a
  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

Specs: Amazon Echo Show

  • Size: 7.4″ x 7.4″ x 3.5″
  • Screen size: 7″
  • Sound: dual 2″ speakers
  • Camera: Front-facing 5MP camera for video calls
  • Wi-Fi: Dual-band Wi-Fi supports 802.11 a/b/g/n (2.4 and 5 GHz) networks.
  • Bluetooth: Full support for streaming audio from a device to the Echo and for voice control of mobile devices.
  • Power: Requires standard wall outlet
  • Battery life: n/a
  • Setup requirements: Needs Wi-Fi connection and compatible control device (Fire OS, Android, iOS, or web portal)

SEE: Don’t miss our latest IoT coverage (TechRepublic on Flipboard)

Why does Amazon Echo matter?

The smart speaker/IoT hub marketplace is currently caught in a dual platform war, as is often the case in technology. This time it’s Amazon vs. Google, and the latter has a lot of catching up to do.

If Amazon’s digital assistant supremacy–and by extension the Echo’s market lead–continues, it’s likely anyone getting into IoT will have to make a choice between two platforms: Amazon’s and Google’s.

Amazon’s two years of additional sales time has given it a huge edge on the number of available Skills and smart home partnerships: It greatly outpaces Google in both of those areas.

Additional resources

Who does Amazon Echo affect?

If you’re curious about the Internet of Things, the Amazon Echo affects you. Smart homes and smart offices need a main device that operates the thermostat, turns on the lights, streams video to the TV, controls the washing machine… the possibilities are too numerous to name and keep growing all the time.

SEE: Special report: Harnessing IoT in the enterprise (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

The Amazon Echo isn’t just a smart home hub—it’s also a digital assistant designed to do a lot of the same things as Siri, Google Assistant, Cortana, and similar technology. It can set timers, add items to a shopping list, get movie reviews, book restaurant reservations, and do a lot of the stuff you used to have to find your smartphone for.

Whether you want an Amazon Echo to set the thermostat, lock the doors, shut the blinds, or just keep a shopping list, the device can do it both at home and on the go with its mobile offerings.

Amazon Echo units are hardware products, but they’re inseparable from Alexa, Amazon’s digital assistant. When you start using an Echo in the office or home, you’re getting Alexa along with it, and Amazon knows it. Amazon launched in 2017 Alexa for Business, which gives myriad tools to businesses that want to integrate Alexa, and Echo products, into the office.

Additional resources

How has the Amazon Echo line changed since it launched?

The original Amazon Echo was released to the public in June 2015. The Dot joined it in March 2016, and the Tap came to market in September 2016.

New Skills and IoT partnerships are released fairly regularly, and large announcements can be expected at most major trade shows like CES, which Amazon Alexa dominated in 2017.

SEE: Alexa builds a growing army to invade the digital home (ZDNet)

Amazon revamped the Echo line with a new version of the Echo in September 2017, along with these new products: The smart home-centered Echo Plus, the tiny Echo Spot (no longer available), and the Echo Connect, which allows you to connect Alexa to a telephone landline.” Echo Buttons were also released, which function like game show buzzers for playing Echo games.

In September 2018, Amazon made another round of changes to the Echo product line, introducing new versions of products including the Echo Dot and Echo Show, as well as releasing a number of new Alexa-powered items.

Along with updated versions of the Echo smart speakers covered in the tech specs section of this cheat sheet, Amazon released the following new Echo products.

  • Echo Input: The Echo Input is roughly the same diameter as an Echo Dot, but it lacks a speaker. Instead, it’s designed to be connected to any standard speaker to turn it into an Alexa-powered smart speaker.

  • Echo Sub: While not a standalone Echo unit, the Sub pairs with one or two Echoes to create a better sound system. It’s a six-inch down-firing subwoofer that sounds like it will pack a punch, and vastly improve listening quality if your Echo serves as a home stereo system.

  • Echo Link Amp: The Echo Link Amp is an amplifier. It has a coaxial, line, and optical in/out, support for a subwoofer, and other standard amp features.

  • Amazon Smart Plug: The Amazon Smart Plug is a tiny IoT-powered plug that sits between a wall outlet and an appliance. Echo units automatically detect them when they’re on the same Wi-Fi network, and lets you specify what the Smart Plug is powering. You can then turn that old-fashioned electronic into a smart product that responds to Alexa commands.

  • AmazonBasics Microwave: This Alexa-connected microwave will respond to voice commands when it’s on the same Wi-Fi network as an Echo. Toss popcorn in it, say “Alexa, microwave some popcorn,” and it will get it done without you having to push a single button.

  • Echo Wall Clock: The analog Echo Wall Clock connects to Echo units and really only does one thing, aside from telling the time: It uses a ring of LED lights to visually display timers you’ve set with Alexa. If your kitchen is across the house, or office, from your desk it can be a great way to be reminded of a timer you set, and it’s only $29 to boot.

  • Echo Auto: Ever wanted to ask Alexa something in the car only to realize it wasn’t there with you? The Echo Auto aims to eliminate that problem. The small dash-mounted device connects to a smartphone and piggybacks off its data connection to provide full Echo-like capabilities while on the road.

In 2019, Amazon again expanded the Echo line to add the following products: 

  • Echo Studio: This new premium Echo model is designed to compete with high-end audio products like the Sonos One smart speaker. 

  • Echo Flex: This small device plugs directly into an outlet to act as an Echo device, USB wall charger, and night light all in one.

  • Echo Frames: Amazon’s new smart glasses, these fashionable frames are less Google Glass and more a pair of glasses-mounted smart headphones. 

  • Echo Buds: The Echo Buds are Amazon’s response to the success of Apple’s AirPods. 

  • Echo LoopThis smart ring has a clickable button that can be used to call Alexa and make phone calls to one pre-programmed contact. It also has a tiny speaker built in that you can hear by putting the ring close to your ear. 

Additional resources

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Image: Amazon

Who are Amazon Echo’s competitors?

There are a number of third-party smart speakers that aren’t manufactured by Amazon but partner with them so that they can use Alexa. I’m not including them here since they aren’t direct competitors.

Amazon Echo’s main competitor is Google Home. The hardware specs for the Google Home are similar to the Echo, and functionality of the device is very similar as well. The newest version of the basic Echo is a bit cheaper, though: $99 vs. the Home’s $129.

The Dot can be purchased for $49.99, the same price as the Google Home Mini, and the Echo Plus is slightly more expensive than the Google Home at $149.

The biggest difference between the Echo and Google Home may be both product’s suitability for business use. Amazon might have an advantage when it comes to hardware integrations and market share, but Google’s ecosystem is much larger, offers a wider range of products suitable for business, and has more room to grow. It’s important to remember that Amazon is an online marketplace, and Echo will always serve that purpose.

Google, on the other hand, is in the information business, which may give it an edge as the battle for smart home and digital assistant supremacy continues.

It’s also worth mentioning the Apple HomePod, Apple’s Siri-powered entry into the smart speaker market. If your interest in smart speakers is primarily driven by their business applications, the HomePod may not be the best investment–while it does have some business uses, it is primarily designed for home use.

Additional resources

How can I start using Amazon Echo?

All of the Echo devices are available on Amazon and at major electronics retailers.

Once you purchase an Echo, it’s simple to get it going—just install the app, turn on the Echo, and follow the onscreen instructions. Connection errors are infrequent and, as long as you don’t move the Echo outside of Wi-Fi range, you shouldn’t need to deal with any problems.

The Echo Loop and Echo Frames are currently only available via invitation, so the general public is out of luck. Be sure to check the links to those products in this guide to see the latest availability status.

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Understanding electron transport in graphene nanoribbons

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New understanding of the electrical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GRBs), when bounded with aromatic molecules, could have significant benefits in the development of chemosensors and personalised medicine.

Understanding electron transport in graphene nanoribbons

Image credit: Pixabay (Free Pixabay license)

Graphene is a modern wonder material possessing unique properties of strength, flexibility and conductivity whilst being abundant and remarkably cheap to produce, lending it to a multitude of useful applications – especially true when these 2D atom-thick sheets of carbon are split into narrow strips known as Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs). New research published in EPJ Plus, authored by Kristiāns Čerņevičs, Michele Pizzochero, and Oleg V. Yazyev, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, aims to better understand the electron transport properties of GNRs and how they are affected by bonding with aromatics. This is a key step in designing technology such chemosensors.

“Graphene nanoribbons – strips of graphene just few nanometres wide – are a new and exciting class of nanostructures that have emerged as potential building blocks for a wide variety of technological applications,” Čerņevičs says.

The team performed their investigation with the two forms of GNR , armchair and zigzag, which are categorised by the shape of the edges of the material. These properties are predominantly created by the process used to synthesise them. In addition to this, the EPFL team experimented p-polyphenyl and polyacene groups of increasing length.

“We have employed advanced computer simulations to find out how electrical conductivity of graphene nanoribbons is affected by chemical functionalisation with guest organic molecules that consist of chains composed of an increasing number of aromatic rings,” says Čerņevičs.

The team discovered that the conductance at energies matching the energy levels of the corresponding isolated molecule was reduced by one quantum, or left unaffected based on whether the number of aromatic rings possessed by the bound molecule was odd or even. The study shows this ‘even–odd effect’ originates from a subtle interplay between the electronic states of the guest molecule spatially localised on the binding sites and those of the host nanoribbon.

“Our findings demonstrate that the interaction of the guest organic molecules with the host graphene nanoribbon can be exploited to detect the ‘fingerprint’ of the guest aromatic molecule, and additionally offer a firm theoretical ground to understand this effect,” Čerņevičs concludes: “Overall, our work promotes the validity of graphene nanoribbons as promising candidates for next-generation chemosensing devices.”

These potentially wearable or implantable sensors will rely heavily on GRBs due to their electrical properties and could spearhead a personalised health revolution by tracking specific biomarkers in patients.

References: K. Čerņevičs, M. Pizzochero, O. V. Yazyev K. Čerņevičs, M. Pizzochero, O. V. Yazyev (2020), Even–odd conductance effect in graphene nanoribbons induced by edge functionalization with aromatic molecules: basis for novel chemosensors, Eur. Phys. J. Plus 134:681, DOI 10.1140/epjp/s13360-020-00696-y

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